It’s labeled ring flash. There are many variations. You can have a real honest to goodness ring flash. That is a round flash that fits over the front of the camera lens and fires a very even light. This is suppose to give the subject and even exposure and minimize shadows. There is plastic add on device now sold that will attach a standard flash. This device accomplishes the same effect without purchase of a separate flash. Either way the goal is to avoid the often distracting and annoying shadow that falls behind your subject and makes the image appear less natural.
Alternatively you could use a dark background and no shadows will appear. Or, stand the subject far enough from the wall that the shadows will be diffused, kind of like a flash bokeh.
In this image cousin David has evenly lit the subject and used a black background. His subject is isolated nicely. In my work, I have always known about and wanted to use a ring flash. It was never quite practical or within my budget. Then came digital. I could use the operating room light, use a fast shutter speed, use auto white balance, and let the ISO go as high as the camera wants. The ring flash is unnecessary.